Elbridge Gerry mocked the sovereignty of small states and said that “we have never been independent states that were not like that now and could never rely on the principles of Confederation. States and their supporters were intoxicated by the idea of their sovereignty.  The July 16 vote on the Connecticut compromise made the Senate pass for the Congress of Confederations. In previous weeks of the debate, James Madison of Virginia, Rufus King of New York and Governor Morris of Pennsylvania strongly opposed the compromise for this reason.  For the nationalists, the vote of the Convention in favour of compromise was a crushing defeat. But on July 23, they found a way to save their vision of an independent elite senate. Just before most of the Convention`s work was referred to the Committee for details, Governor Morris and Rufus King gave the opportunity to individually elect members of the Senate States instead of voting in bulk, as they had done in the Congress of Confederations. Then Oliver Ellsworth, a prominent proponent of the Connecticut compromise, supported his proposal and the Convention reached a lasting compromise.  Since the Convention early on approved the Virginia Plan`s proposal that senators have long terms, the restoration of the vision of this plan of individually powerful senators has prevented the Senate from becoming a strong protection of federalism. State governments have lost their direct control over congressional decisions to legislate at the national level. Since personally influential senators have been given much longer terms than the state legislators who elected them, they have become essentially independent. The compromise continued to serve the own interests of the political leaders of the small states, who were guaranteed access to more Senate seats than they would otherwise have been able to obtain.  The Connecticut compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman) was an agreement between large and small states during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, which defined in part the structure and legislative representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It maintained the bicameral legislation proposed by Roger Sherman, as well as the proportional state vote in the House of Commons or the House of Representatives, but required that the House of Lords or the Senate be weighted in the same way between states.
Each state would have two representatives in the House of Lords. The problem was referred to a commission made up of a delegate from each state in order to reach a compromise. On 5 July, the Committee presented its report, which became the basis for the “great compromise” of the Convention. The report recommended that each state have the same voice in the House of Lords, and in the House of Commons, each state should have one representative for every 40,000 inhabitants,  slaves should be counted as three-fifths of one inhabitant and that the money bills should come from the House of Commons (not subject to a change by the upper chamber). On June 14, while the Convention was ready to review the Virginia Plan report, William Paterson of New Jersey requested a postponement to allow more time for some delegations to develop a replacement plan. The application was accepted and the next day Mr. Paterson presented nine resolutions containing the necessary amendments to the articles of Confederation, followed by a lively debate. On June 19, delegates rejected New Jersey`s plan and voted in favor of a discussion on the Virginia plan. Smaller states were increasingly dissatisfied and some were threatening to withdraw. On July 2, the Convention was blocked because there was one equal vote for each state in the House of Lords, with five states in for, five in the negative vote and one divided vote. After six weeks of turmoil, North Carolina changed its vote to equal representation by state, Massachusetts abstained and a compromise called “Great Compromise” was found. In the “Great Compromise,” each state formerly known as New Jersey was represented in one House of Congress and proportional representation, formerly known as Plan Virginia, in the other.