In September 2018, the UK government guaranteed the continued free movement of EU citizens across the UK-Ireland border.  It was proposed to use the Norwegian model.  Along the Norway-Sweden border, major road crossings have customs controls where all trucks are checked, but only occasionally, and at smaller crossing points, there is only video surveillance, where trucks can pass with authorization and pre-clearance.  A number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements have made goods controls less intrusive; The completion of the European internal market in 1992 led to the end of goods controls. However, during the riots in Northern Ireland, British military checkpoints occurred at major border crossings and British security forces made some, but not all, crossing points impassable. In 2005, in the implementation phase of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the last of the border checkpoints was abolished.  The joint declaration, which outlines the progress made in the talks led by Michael Gove and Maros Sefcovic, states that “following intense and constructive work in recent weeks by the EU and the United Kingdom, the two co-chairs can now announce their agreement in principle on all issues, including the Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland.” At the end of September 2019, during the litigation before the courts of the European Union Parliament, Jean-Claude Juncker pointed out that a British animal that theoretically enters northern Ireland could theoretically cross the Republic of Ireland and enter the continental EU from there if there were no border controls.  “This will not happen,” he said, “we must preserve the health and safety of our citizens.”  But will it help secure a trade agreement? Maybe. It certainly improves the ambient music. Most importantly, the agreement on the protocol means that the UK has abandoned proposals that threatened to violate international law, which irritated the EU and even many of its people. The proposed withdrawal agreement would end the special regime for Northern Ireland if a solution could be found that would provide a border as pictured as the one that became the Good Friday agreement until Brexit.